Cyber norms bibliography

A regularly updated and easily searchable bibliography on cyber norms-related publications.

This bibliography was originally compiled by Liisi Adamson - please send any additions or suggestions to info@thehaguecybernorms.nl

NB: Underlined items link directly to the referred article or book.

Cyber Norms Bibliography PDF Download

Adamson, L. & Homburger Z.

2019

"Let Them Roar: Small States as Cyber Norm Entrepreneurs", European Foreign Affairs Review, 24 (2): 217-234.

Ashton-Hart, N.

2015

"Solving the International Internet Policy Coordination Problem", Global Commission on Internet Governance, Paper Series: No. 12 – May, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

Austin, G.

2016

"International Legal Norms in Cyberspace: Evolution of China’s National Security Motivations", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 171-201.

Bannelier-Christakis, K.

2019

"Due Diligence: a Strategic Norm of Responsible Behaviour for the EU Cyber Diplomacy Toolbox?", Inaugural meeting of the European Cyber Diplomacy Dialogue, EU Cyber Direct, January 2019.

Barrinha, A. & Renard, T.

2020

"Power and diplomacy in the post-liberal cyberspace", International Affairs, 96 (3): 749-766.

Barton, A.M.

2000

"Norm Origin and Development in Cyberspace: Models of Cybernorm Evolution", Washington University Law Quarterly, 78 (1): 59-111.

Baseley-Walker, B.

2011

"Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures in Cyberspace: Towards Norms of Behaviour", in Vignard, K., McCrae, R. & Powers, J. (eds.), Disarmament Forum: Confronting Cyberconflict, Geneva: UNIDIR, 2011 (4): 31-40.

Bellovin, S.M., Landau, S. & Lin, H.S.

2017

Biller, J.T. & Schmitt, M.N.

2019

Boeke, S. & Broeders, D.

2018

"The Demilitarisation of Cyber Conflict", Survival, 60 (6): 73-90.

Boyko, S.

2016

"UN Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security", International Affairs: A Russian Journal of World Politics, Diplomacy, and International Relations, 62 (5).

Broeders, D.

2016

Broeders, D., Adamson, L. & Creemers, R.

2019

A coalition of the unwilling? Chinese and Russian perspectives on cyberspace, The Hague Program for Cyber Norms Policy Brief, November 2019.

Broeders, D., Boeke, S. & Georgieva, I.

2019

Foreign intelligence in the digital age. Navigating a state of 'unpeace', The Hague Program for Cyber Norms Policy Brief, September 2019.

Broeders, D., De Busser, E. & Pawlak, P.

2020

Three tales of attribution in cyberspace: Criminal law, international law and policy debates, The Hague Program for Cyber Norms Policy Brief, April 2020.

Brown, G. & Poellet, K.

2012

"The Customary International Law of Cyberspace", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 6 (3): 126-145.

Buchan, R.

2019

"Taking Care of Business: Industrial Espionage and International Law", The Brown Journal of World Affairs, 26 (1): 143-160.

Burton, J.

2018

"Cyber Security Norms in the Euro-Atlantic Region: NATO and the EU as Norm Entrepreneurs and Norm Diffusers", in Gruszczak, A. & Frankowski, P. (eds.), Technology, Ethics and the Protocols of Modern War, London: Routledge.

Butler, R.J. & Lachow, I.

2012

"Multilateral Approaches for Improving Global Security in Cyberspace", Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 5-14.

CCDCOE Law Branch Researchers, Kadri Kaska (ed.)

2019

"Trends in International Law for Cyberspace", NATO Cooperative Cyber Defense Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE), May 2019.

Centre for International Governance Innovation & Royal Institute of International Affairs

2016

A Universal Internet in a Bordered World: Research on Fragmentation, Openness and Interoperability (Research Volume One), Global Commission on Internet Governance, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

Chantzos, I. & Alam, S.

2016

"Technological Integrity and the Role of Industry in Emerging Cyber Norms", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 203-220.

Charney, S., English, E., Kleiner, A., Malisevic, N., McKay, A., Neutze, J., & Nicholas, P.

2016

Chertoff, M. & Rosenzweig, P.

2015

"A Primer on Globally Harmonizing Internet Jurisdiction and Regulations", Global Commission on Internet Governance, Paper Series: No. 10 – March, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

Choucri, N.

2013

"Co-Evolution of Cyberspace and International Relations: New Challenges for the Social Sciences", Prepared for World Social Science Forum (WSSF) 2013 Montreal, Canada, Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Clarke, R.A.

2012

Claussen, K.

2018

"Beyond Norms: Using International Economic Tools to Deter Malicious State-Sponsored Cyber Activities", Temple International & Comparative Law Journal, 32 (2): 113-125. (Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3395176).

Corn, G. & Jensen, E.T.

2018

"The Use of Force and Cyber Countermeasures", Temple International & Comparative Law Journal, 32 (2): 127-133. (Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3190253).

Crandall, M. & Allan, C.

2015

"Small States and Big Ideas: Estonia’s Battle for Cybersecurity Norms", Contemporary Security Policy, 36 (2): 346-368.

Cristiano, F.

2018

"From Simulations to Simulacra of War: Game Scenarios in Cyberwar Exercises", Journal of War & Culture Studies, 11 (1): 22-37.

Davis, II, J.S., Boudreaux, B., Welburn, J.W., Aguirre, J., Ogletree, C., McGovern, G., & Chase, M.S.

2017

Stateless Attribution: Toward International Accountability in Cyberspace. Research Reports. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.

Davis, J.A. & Lewis, C.

2019

"Beyond the United Nations Group of Governmental Experts", The Cyber Defense Review: 161-168.

Delerue, F.

2020

Cyber Operations and International Law, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 146.

Dunn Cavelty, M. & Wenger, A.

2020

Dwyer, A. & Silomon, J.

2019

"Dangerous Gaming: Cyber-Attacks, Air-Strikes and Twitter", E-International Relations, 23 September 2019.

Easterbrook, F.H.

1996

"Cyberspace and the Law of the Horse", University of Chicago Legal Forum, Vol. 1996, Article 7.

Eggenschwiler, J.

2019

Egloff, F.J.

2019

Egloff, F.J.

2020

"Public attribution of cyber intrusions", Journal of Cybersecurity, 6 (1).

Eichensehr, K.

2020

Eichensehr, K.E.

2015

"The Cyber-Law of Nations", The Georgetown Law Journal, 103 (2): 317-380.

Eldem, T.

2019

Elliott, D.

2009

"Weighing the Case For a Convention to Limit Cyberwarfare", Arms Control Today, 39 (9): 21-27.

Erskine, T. & Carr, M.

2016

"Beyond ‘Quasi-Norms’: The Challenges and Potential of Engaging with Norms in Cyberspace", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 87-109.

Fairbank, N.A.

2019

Farrell, H.

2015

"Promoting Norms for Cyberspace", Cyber Brief, NY: Council on Foreign Relations.

Finnemore, M.

2011

"Cultivating International Cyber Norms", in Lord, K.M. & Sharp, T (eds.), America’s Cyber Future: Security and Prosperity in the Information Age, Washington D.C.: Center for a New American Security, 87-102.

Finnemore, M.

2017

"Cybersecurity and the Concept of Norms", Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 30 November 2017.

Finnemore, M. & Hollis, D.

2016

"Constructing Norms for Global Cybersecurity", American Journal of International Law, 110 (3): 425-479.

Finnemore, M. & Hollis, D.B.

2019

"Beyond Naming and Shaming: Accusations and International Law in Cybersecurity". Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2019-14. (Available at SSRN: https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3347958).

Forsyth, J.W.

2013

Forsyth, J.W. & Pope, B.E.

2014

Gechlik, M.

2017

"Appropriate Norms of State Behavior in Cyberspace: Governance in China and Opportunities for US Businesses", Hoover Working Group on National Security, Technology, and Law, Aegis Series Paper No. 1706, 28 July 2017.

Geier, K.

2016

"Norms, Confidence and Capacity Building: Putting the UN Recommendations on Information and Communication Technologies in the Context of International Security Into OSCE-Action", European Cybersecurity Journal, 2 (1).

Georgieva, I.

2019

Ghernaouti-Hélie, S.

2010

Gioe, D.V., Goodman, V.S., & Stevens, T.

2020

"Intelligence in the Cyber Era: Evolution or Revolution?", Political Science Quarterly, 135 (2): 191-224.

Glennon, M.J.

2013

"The Dark Future of International Cybersecurity Regulation", Journal of National Security Law & Policy, 6 (2): 563-570.

Goldschmidt, C., Dark, M.J. & Chaudhry, H.

2010

"Responsibility for the Harm and Risk of Software Security Flaws", in Dark, M.J. (ed.), Information Assurance and Security Ethics in Complex Systems: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Hershey PA: IGI Global, 104-131.

Goldsmith, J.

2011

"Cybersecurity Treaties: A Skeptical View", in Berkowitz, P. (ed.), Future Challenges in National Security and Law, Hoover Institution Press.

Grauman, B.

2012

Greenberg, A.

2019

Sandworm: A New Era of Cyberwar and the Hunt for the Kremlin's Most Dangerous Hackers. Doubleday.

Grigsby, A.

2017

"The End of Cyber Norms", Survival, 59 (6): 109-122.

Hamman, S.T., Mewhirter, J., Harknett, R.J., Vićić, J., & White, P.

2020

"Deciphering Cyber Operations", The Cyber Defense Review, 5 (1): 135-152.

Hampson, F.O. & Sulmeyer, M. (eds.)

2017

Harknett, R.J. & Smeets, M

2020

"Cyber campaigns and strategic outcomes", Journal of Strategic Studies.

Healey, J.

2019

Healey, J. & Pitts, H.

2012

"Applying International Environmental Legal Norms to Cyber Statecraft", I/S: A Journal of Law and Policy for the Information Society, 8 (2): 356- 387.

Heintschel von Heinegg, W.

2015

Henschke, A., Sussex, M. & O'Connor, C.

2020

Hoffman, S., Lazanski, D. & Taylor, E.

2020

Holland, H.B.

2005

"The Failure of the Rule of Law in Cyberspace?: Reorienting the Normative Debate on Borders and Territorial Sovereignty", The John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law, 24 (1): 1-34.

Hollis, D.

2017

"China and the US Strategic Construction of Cybernorms: The Process is the Product", Hoover Working Group on National Security, Technology, and Law, Aegis Paper Series No. 1704, 7 July 2017.

Homburger, Z.

2019

Hughes, R.

2010

"A Treaty for Cyberspace", International Affairs, 86 (2): 523-541.

Hughes, R.

2009

"Towards a Global Regime for Cyber Warfare", in Czosseck, C. & Geers, K. (eds.), The Virtual Battlefield: Perspectives on Cyber Warfare, Conference proceedings - Cooperative Cyber Defense Centre of Excellence (CCD CoE) Conference on Cyber Warfare (June 2009, Tallinn, Estonia).

Hurel, L.M. & Lobato, L.C.

2018

"Unpacking Cyber Norms: Private Companies as Norm Entrepreneurs", Journal of Cyber Policy, 3 (1): 61-76.

Hurwitz, R.

2013

"A New Normal? The Cultivation of Global Norms as Part of a Cybersecurity Strategy", in Yannakogeorgos, P.A. & Lowther, A.B. (eds.), Conflict and Cooperation In Cyberspace, The Challenge to National Security, Taylor & Francis.

Hurwitz, R.

2015

A Call to Cyber Norms: Discussions at the Harvard-MIT-University of Toronto Cyber Norms Workshops, 2011 and 2012, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Hurwitz, R.

2012

"Depleted Trust in the Cyber Commons", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 6 (3): 20-45.

Hurwitz, R.

2014

"The Play of States: Norms and Security in Cyberspace", American Foreign Policy Interests: The Journal of the National Committee on American Foreign Policy, 36 (5): 322-331.

International Security Advisory Board (ISAB)

2014

International Telecommunications Union

2014

Ivan, P.

2019

"Responding to cyberattacks: Prospects for the EU Cyber Diplomacy Toolbox", Europe in the World Programme Discussion Paper, European Policy Centre.

Johnson, D.R. & Post, D.

1996

Kaljurand, M.

2016

"United Nations Group of Governmental Experts: The Estonian Perspective", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 111-127.

Kanuck, S.

2010

"Sovereign Discourse on Cyber Conflict Under International Law", Texas Law Review, 88 (7): 1571-1598.

Kavanagh, C.

2012

"Cyber Dialogue 2012 Briefs: Whither “Rules of the Road” for Cyberspace?", CyberDialogue 2012: What is Stewardship in Cyberspace.

Kerttunen, M.

2016

"Patterns of Behavior: States In, Through, and About Cyberspace", Cyber Policy Institute.

Klimburg, A.

2020

Klimburg, A. & Almeida, V.A.

2019

Klimburg, A. & Tirmaa-Klaar, H.

2011

"Cybersecurity and Cyberpower: Concepts, Conditions and Capabilities for Cooperation for Action Within the EU", Directorate-General for External Policies of the Union, Directorate B, Policy Department, European Parliament.

Komov, S., Korotkov, S. & Dylevski, I.

2007

"Military Aspects of Ensuring International Information Security in the Context of Elaborating Universally Acknowledged Principles of International Law", in Vignard, K. (ed.), Disarmament Forum: ICTs and International Security, Geneva: UNIDIR, 2007 (3): 35-44.

Korzak, E.

2016

"The Quest for Cyber Norms", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 72 (5): 348-350.

Kramer, F.D.

2012

Achieving International Cyber Stability, Washington D.C.: The Atlantic Council.

Krutskikh, A. & Streltsov, A.A.

2014

"International Law and the Problem of International Information Security", International Affairs: A Russian Journal of World Politics, Diplomacy, and International Relations, 60 (6), 64-76.

Krutskikh, A.V.

2007

"[On Legal and Political Foundations of Global Information Security]" (in Russian), Mezhdunarodniye Protsessy, 1 (5), 28–37.

Lambach, D.

2020

"The Territorialization of Cyberspace", International Studies Review, 22 (3): 482-506.

Lantis, J.S. & Bloomberg, D.J.

2018

Lessig, L.

2006

Code, Version 2.0, Cambridge, MA: Basic Books.

Lessig, L.

1999

"The Law of the Horse: What Cyberlaw Might Teach", Harvard Law Review, 113 (501).

Lewis, J.A.

2011

"Confidence-Building and International Agreement in Cybersecurity", in Vignard, K., McCrae, R. & Powers, J. (eds.), Disarmament Forum: Confronting Cyberconflict, Geneva: UNIDIR, 2011 (4): 51-60.

Lewis, J.A.

2014

"Liberty, Equality, Connectivity: Transatlantic Cybersecurity Norms", Washington D.C: Center for Strategic & International Studies.

Lewis, J.A.

2010

"Multilateral Agreements to Constrain Cyberconflict", Arms Control Today, 40 (5): 14-19.

Libicki, M.

2018

"Expectations of Cyber Deterrence", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 12 (4): 44-57.

Libicki, M.C.

2020

"Norms and Normalization", The Cyber Defense Review, 5 (1): 41-54.

Lin, H.

2019

"The existential threat from cyber-enabled information warfare", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 75 (4): 187-196.

Lin, H.

2016

"Attribution of malicious cyber incidents: From soup to nuts", Journal of International Affairs, 70 (1): 75-137.

Lindsay, J.R.

2020

Information Technology and Military Power, Cornell University Press.

Lotrionte, C.

2013

Lu, C.

2020

"Forging Stability in Cyberspace", Survival, 62 (2): 125-136.

Lubin, A.

2020

"The Liberty to Spy", Harvard International Law Journal, 61 (1): 185.

Lucas, G.

2020

"Cybersecurity and Cyber Warfare: The Ethical Paradox of 'Universal Diffidence'", in Christen, M., Gordijn, B. & Loi, M. (eds.). The Ethics of Cybersecurity, The International Library of Ethics, Law and Technology, 21, Springer: 245-258.

Maschmeyer, L., Deibert, R.J. & Lindsay, J.R.

2020

Maurer, T.

2016

"The New Norms: Global Cyber-Security Protocols Face Challenges", IHS Jane’s Intelligence Review, March: 52-53.

Maurer, T.

2011

"Cyber Norm Emergence at the United Nations, An Analysis of the UN‘s Activities Regarding Cyber-security", Discussion Paper 2011-11, Cambridge, Mass.: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School.

Maurer, T.

2019

"A Dose of Realism: The Contestation and Politics of Cyber Norms", Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, 1-23.

Maurer, T., Levite, A., & Perkovich, G.

2017

"Toward a Global Norm Against Manipulating the Integrity of Financial Data", Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 27 March 2017.

Mazanec, B.M.

2015

"Why International Order in Cyberspace is Not Inevitable", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 9 (2): 78-98.

Mazanec, B.M.

2015

The Evolution of Cyber War: International Norms for Emerging-Technology Weapons. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Mačák, K.

2016

"Is the International Law of Cyber Security in Crisis?", in Pissanidis, N., Rõigas, H. & Veenendaal, M. (eds.), 2016 8th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Cyber Power, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 127-139.

Mačák, K.

2017

"From Cyber Norms to Cyber Rules: Re-engaging States as Law-makers", Leiden Journal of International Law, 30 (4): 877-899.

McKay, A., Neutze, J., Nicholas, P. & Sullivan, K.

2014

Melzer, N.

2011

"Cyberwarfare and International Law", UNIDIR Resources, Ideas for Peace and Security.

Meyer, P.

2020

"Norms of Responsible State Behaviour in Cyberspace", in The International Library of Ethics, Law and Technology: Springer.

Moret, E. & Pawlak, P.

2017

"The EU Cyber Diplomacy Toolbox: towards a cyber sanctions regime?", European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) Brief, July 2017.

Mueller, B.

2014

"The Laws of War and Cyberspace: On the Need for a Treaty Concerning Cyber Conflict", Strategic Update 14.2, London: London School of Economics and Political Science.

Mueller, M., Grindal, K., Kuerbis, B. & Badiei, F.

2019

Mukerji, A.

2020

"The Need for an International Convention on Cyberspace", Horizons: Journal of International Relations and Sustainable Development, 16: 198-209.

Murray, A.

2007

The Regulation of Cyberspace: Control in the Online Environment, New York: Routledge.

Nye, J.S.

2013

"From Bombs to Bytes: Can Our Nuclear History Inform Our Cyber Future?", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 69 (5): 8-14.

Nye, J.S.

2014

"The Regime Complex for Managing Global Cyber Activities. The Centre for International Governance", Global Commission on Internet Governance, Paper Series: No. 1 – May, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

Nye, J.S.

2018

Normative Restraints on Cyber Conflict, Cambridge, Mass.: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School.

Ohlin, J.D.

2020

Election Interference: International Law and the Future of Democracy. Cambridge University Press.

Orji, U.J.

2012

Cybersecurity: Law and Regulation, Wolf Legal Publishers.

Pawlak, P.

2016

"Confidence-Building Measures in Cyberspace: Current Debates and Trends", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 129-153.

Pawlak, P.

2019

"The EU’s Role in Shaping the Cyber Regime Complex", European Foreign Affairs Review, 24 (2): 167–186.

Permanent Monitoring Panel on Information Security of the World Federation of Scientists (WFS)

2010

"Erice Declaration on Principles for Cyber Stability and Cyber Peace", International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies: 42nd Session, Erice, Italy, 19-24 August, 110-111.

Polanski, P.P.

2006

"Towards a Supranational Internet Law", Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology, 1 (1): 1-9.

Polanski, P.P.

2007

Customary Law of the Internet. In the Search for a Supranational Cyberspace Law, The Hague: TMC Asser Press.

Post, D.G.

2000

"Of Black Holes and Decentralized Law-Making in Cyberspace", Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment Law & Practice, 2 (1): 70-79.

Raymond, M.

2016

"Applying Old Rules to New Cases: International Law in the Cyber Domain", Paper presented to the International Studies Association, Atlanta GA, 16-19 March 2016.

Roguski, P.

2020

Rusch, J.J.

2000

"Cyberspace and the “Devil’s Hatband”", Seattle University Law Review, 24 (2): 577-598.

Ryan, J.J.C.H., Ryan, D.J. & Tikk, E.

2010

"Cybersecurity Regulation: Using Analogies to Develop Frameworks for Regulation", in Tikk, E. & Talihärm, A-M. (eds.), International Cyber Security Legal & Policy Proceedings 2010, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE, 76-99.

Schjølberg, S. & Ghernaouti-Hélie, S.

2009

Schjølberg, S. & Ghernaouti-Hélie, S.

2011

Schmitt, M.N.

2018

Schmitt, M.N.

2017

"Grey Zones in the International Law of Cyberspace", The Yale Journal of International Law Online, 42 (2): 1-21.

Schmitt, M.N.

2019

Schmitt, M.N. & Vihul, L.

2014

"The Nature of International Law Cyber Norms", Tallinn Paper No. 5, Special Expanded Issue, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications.

Schmitt, M.N. & Vihul, L.

2017

"Sovereignty in Cyberspace: Lex Lata Vel Non?", AJIL Unbound, 111: 213-218.

Schmitt, M.N. & Vihul, L.

2017

"Respect for Sovereignty in Cyberspace", Texas Law Review, 95: 1639-1670.

Schmitt, M.N. (ed.)

2017

Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schmitt, M.N. (ed.)

2013

Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schmitt, M.N. | Ministerie van Defensie

2018

Shackelford, S.J.

2020

Governing New Frontiers in the Information Age: Toward Cyber Peace, Cambridge University Press.

Singh, H.V., Abdel-Latif, A. & Tuthill, L.L.

2016

"Governance of International Trade and the Internet: Existing and Evolving Regulatory Systems", Global Commission on Internet Governance, Paper Series: No. 32 – May, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

Slupska, J.

2020

"War, Health, & Ecosystem: Generative Metaphors in Cybersecurity Governance", Philosophy & Technology, forthcoming. (Pre-print available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3534579).

Smeets, M.

2019

"There Are Too Many Red Lines in Cyberspace", Lawfare (20 March 2019).

Sofaer, A.D., Clark, D. & Diffie, W.

2010

"Cyber Security and International Agreements", Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring Cyberattacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy, National Academies Press, 179-206.

Solum, L.B. & Chung, M.

2004

"The Layers Principle: Internet Architecture and the Law", Notre Dame Law Review, 79 (3): 815-948.

Steinbruner, J.

2011

"Prospects for Global Restraints on Cyberattack", Arms Control Today, 41 (10): 21-26.

Stevens, T.

2012

"A Cyberwar of Ideas? Deterrence and Norms in Cyberspace", Contemporary Security Policy, 33 (1): 148-170.

Streltsov, A.A.

2007

"International Information Security: Description and Legal Aspects", in Vignard, K. (ed.), Disarmament Forum: ICTs and International Security, Geneva: UNIDIR, 2007 (3): 5-14.

Taddeo, M.

2018

"Deterrence and Norms to Foster Stability in Cyberspace", Philosophy & Technology, 31: 323-329.

Taddeo, M.

2017

"Deterrence by Norms to Stop Interstate Cyber Attacks", Minds and Machines, 27(3): 387-392.

Taddeo, M.

2020

"Norms and Strategies for Stability in Cyberspace", in Burr, C. & Milano, S. (eds.). The 2019 Yearbook of the Digital Ethics Lab, Digital Ethics Lab Yearbook: Springer.

Tikk, E.

2011

"Ten Rules for Cyber Security", Survival, 53 (3): 119-132.

Tikk-Ringas, E.

2015

"Legal Framework of Cyber Security", in Lehto, M. & Neittaanmäki, P. (eds.), Cyber Security: Analytics, Technology and Automation, Springer International Publishing.

Tikk-Ringas, E.

2017

"International Cyber Norms Dialogue as an Exercise of Normative Power", Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 17 (3): 47-59.

Tikk-Ringas, E. (ed.)

2015

Evolution of the Cyber Domain: The Implications for National and Global Security - Strategic Dossier, IISS-Routledge, "Chapter 5: The 2000s".

Tropina, T. & Callanan, C.

2015

Self- and Co-regulation in Cybercrime, Cybersecurity and National Security, Springer.

Tsagourias, N.

2016

"Non-State Actors, Ungoverned Spaces and International Responsibility for Cyber Acts", Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 21 (3): 455-474.

Vishik, C., Matsubara, M. & Plonk, A.

2016

"Key Concepts in Cyber Security: Towards a Common Policy and Technology Context for Cyber Security Norms", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 221-242.

Walker, C. & Masood, U.H.B.

2020

Delerue, F.

2020

Cyber Operations and International Law, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 146.

Shackelford, S.J.

2020

Governing New Frontiers in the Information Age: Toward Cyber Peace, Cambridge University Press.

Taddeo, M.

2020

"Norms and Strategies for Stability in Cyberspace", in Burr, C. & Milano, S. (eds.). The 2019 Yearbook of the Digital Ethics Lab, Digital Ethics Lab Yearbook: Springer.

Slupska, J.

2020

"War, Health, & Ecosystem: Generative Metaphors in Cybersecurity Governance", Philosophy & Technology, forthcoming. (Pre-print available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3534579).

Roguski, P.

2020

Broeders, D., De Busser, E. & Pawlak, P.

2020

Three tales of attribution in cyberspace: Criminal law, international law and policy debates, The Hague Program for Cyber Norms Policy Brief, April 2020.

Lu, C.

2020

"Forging Stability in Cyberspace", Survival, 62 (2): 125-136.

Dunn Cavelty, M. & Wenger, A.

2020

Hamman, S.T., Mewhirter, J., Harknett, R.J., Vićić, J., & White, P.

2020

"Deciphering Cyber Operations", The Cyber Defense Review, 5 (1): 135-152.

Klimburg, A.

2020

Libicki, M.C.

2020

"Norms and Normalization", The Cyber Defense Review, 5 (1): 41-54.

Lucas, G.

2020

"Cybersecurity and Cyber Warfare: The Ethical Paradox of 'Universal Diffidence'", in Christen, M., Gordijn, B. & Loi, M. (eds.). The Ethics of Cybersecurity, The International Library of Ethics, Law and Technology, 21, Springer: 245-258.

Wilner, A.S.

2020

"US cyber deterrence: Practising guiding theory", Journal of Strategic Studies, 43 (2): 245-280.

Harknett, R.J. & Smeets, M

2020

"Cyber campaigns and strategic outcomes", Journal of Strategic Studies.

Walker, C. & Masood, U.H.B.

2020

Barrinha, A. & Renard, T.

2020

"Power and diplomacy in the post-liberal cyberspace", International Affairs, 96 (3): 749-766.

Eichensehr, K.

2020

Gioe, D.V., Goodman, V.S., & Stevens, T.

2020

"Intelligence in the Cyber Era: Evolution or Revolution?", Political Science Quarterly, 135 (2): 191-224.

Henschke, A., Sussex, M. & O'Connor, C.

2020

Hoffman, S., Lazanski, D. & Taylor, E.

2020

Lambach, D.

2020

"The Territorialization of Cyberspace", International Studies Review, 22 (3): 482-506.

Lindsay, J.R.

2020

Information Technology and Military Power, Cornell University Press.

Lubin, A.

2020

"The Liberty to Spy", Harvard International Law Journal, 61 (1): 185.

Maschmeyer, L., Deibert, R.J. & Lindsay, J.R.

2020

Meyer, P.

2020

"Norms of Responsible State Behaviour in Cyberspace", in The International Library of Ethics, Law and Technology: Springer.

Mukerji, A.

2020

"The Need for an International Convention on Cyberspace", Horizons: Journal of International Relations and Sustainable Development, 16: 198-209.

Ohlin, J.D.

2020

Election Interference: International Law and the Future of Democracy. Cambridge University Press.

Egloff, F.J.

2020

"Public attribution of cyber intrusions", Journal of Cybersecurity, 6 (1).

Woods, D.W. & Weinkle, J.

2020

"Insurance definitions of cyber war", The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, 45: 639-656.

Finnemore, M. & Hollis, D.B.

2019

"Beyond Naming and Shaming: Accusations and International Law in Cybersecurity". Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2019-14. (Available at SSRN: https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3347958).

Homburger, Z.

2019

Eggenschwiler, J.

2019

Adamson, L. & Homburger Z.

2019

"Let Them Roar: Small States as Cyber Norm Entrepreneurs", European Foreign Affairs Review, 24 (2): 217-234.

Smeets, M.

2019

"There Are Too Many Red Lines in Cyberspace", Lawfare (20 March 2019).

Pawlak, P.

2019

"The EU’s Role in Shaping the Cyber Regime Complex", European Foreign Affairs Review, 24 (2): 167–186.

Ivan, P.

2019

"Responding to cyberattacks: Prospects for the EU Cyber Diplomacy Toolbox", Europe in the World Programme Discussion Paper, European Policy Centre.

Bannelier-Christakis, K.

2019

"Due Diligence: a Strategic Norm of Responsible Behaviour for the EU Cyber Diplomacy Toolbox?", Inaugural meeting of the European Cyber Diplomacy Dialogue, EU Cyber Direct, January 2019.

CCDCOE Law Branch Researchers, Kadri Kaska (ed.)

2019

"Trends in International Law for Cyberspace", NATO Cooperative Cyber Defense Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE), May 2019.

Maurer, T.

2019

"A Dose of Realism: The Contestation and Politics of Cyber Norms", Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, 1-23.

Georgieva, I.

2019

Broeders, D., Boeke, S. & Georgieva, I.

2019

Foreign intelligence in the digital age. Navigating a state of 'unpeace', The Hague Program for Cyber Norms Policy Brief, September 2019.

Egloff, F.J.

2019

Biller, J.T. & Schmitt, M.N.

2019

Schmitt, M.N.

2019

Eldem, T.

2019

Broeders, D., Adamson, L. & Creemers, R.

2019

A coalition of the unwilling? Chinese and Russian perspectives on cyberspace, The Hague Program for Cyber Norms Policy Brief, November 2019.

Davis, J.A. & Lewis, C.

2019

"Beyond the United Nations Group of Governmental Experts", The Cyber Defense Review: 161-168.

Fairbank, N.A.

2019

Klimburg, A. & Almeida, V.A.

2019

Lin, H.

2019

"The existential threat from cyber-enabled information warfare", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 75 (4): 187-196.

Mueller, M., Grindal, K., Kuerbis, B. & Badiei, F.

2019

Willett, M.

2019

"Assessing Cyber Power", Survival, 61 (1): 85-90.

Buchan, R.

2019

"Taking Care of Business: Industrial Espionage and International Law", The Brown Journal of World Affairs, 26 (1): 143-160.

Dwyer, A. & Silomon, J.

2019

"Dangerous Gaming: Cyber-Attacks, Air-Strikes and Twitter", E-International Relations, 23 September 2019.

Healey, J.

2019

Greenberg, A.

2019

Sandworm: A New Era of Cyberwar and the Hunt for the Kremlin's Most Dangerous Hackers. Doubleday.

Schmitt, M.N. | Ministerie van Defensie

2018

Nye, J.S.

2018

Normative Restraints on Cyber Conflict, Cambridge, Mass.: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School.

Taddeo, M.

2018

"Deterrence and Norms to Foster Stability in Cyberspace", Philosophy & Technology, 31: 323-329.

Schmitt, M.N.

2018

Boeke, S. & Broeders, D.

2018

"The Demilitarisation of Cyber Conflict", Survival, 60 (6): 73-90.

Lantis, J.S. & Bloomberg, D.J.

2018

Claussen, K.

2018

"Beyond Norms: Using International Economic Tools to Deter Malicious State-Sponsored Cyber Activities", Temple International & Comparative Law Journal, 32 (2): 113-125. (Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3395176).

Corn, G. & Jensen, E.T.

2018

"The Use of Force and Cyber Countermeasures", Temple International & Comparative Law Journal, 32 (2): 127-133. (Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3190253).

Hurel, L.M. & Lobato, L.C.

2018

"Unpacking Cyber Norms: Private Companies as Norm Entrepreneurs", Journal of Cyber Policy, 3 (1): 61-76.

Burton, J.

2018

"Cyber Security Norms in the Euro-Atlantic Region: NATO and the EU as Norm Entrepreneurs and Norm Diffusers", in Gruszczak, A. & Frankowski, P. (eds.), Technology, Ethics and the Protocols of Modern War, London: Routledge.

Cristiano, F.

2018

"From Simulations to Simulacra of War: Game Scenarios in Cyberwar Exercises", Journal of War & Culture Studies, 11 (1): 22-37.

Libicki, M.

2018

"Expectations of Cyber Deterrence", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 12 (4): 44-57.

Schmitt, M.N. (ed.)

2017

Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tikk-Ringas, E.

2017

"International Cyber Norms Dialogue as an Exercise of Normative Power", Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 17 (3): 47-59.

Mačák, K.

2017

"From Cyber Norms to Cyber Rules: Re-engaging States as Law-makers", Leiden Journal of International Law, 30 (4): 877-899.

Hollis, D.

2017

"China and the US Strategic Construction of Cybernorms: The Process is the Product", Hoover Working Group on National Security, Technology, and Law, Aegis Paper Series No. 1704, 7 July 2017.

Hampson, F.O. & Sulmeyer, M. (eds.)

2017

Grigsby, A.

2017

"The End of Cyber Norms", Survival, 59 (6): 109-122.

Finnemore, M.

2017

"Cybersecurity and the Concept of Norms", Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 30 November 2017.

Gechlik, M.

2017

"Appropriate Norms of State Behavior in Cyberspace: Governance in China and Opportunities for US Businesses", Hoover Working Group on National Security, Technology, and Law, Aegis Series Paper No. 1706, 28 July 2017.

Maurer, T., Levite, A., & Perkovich, G.

2017

"Toward a Global Norm Against Manipulating the Integrity of Financial Data", Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 27 March 2017.

Taddeo, M.

2017

"Deterrence by Norms to Stop Interstate Cyber Attacks", Minds and Machines, 27(3): 387-392.

Moret, E. & Pawlak, P.

2017

"The EU Cyber Diplomacy Toolbox: towards a cyber sanctions regime?", European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) Brief, July 2017.

Schmitt, M.N. & Vihul, L.

2017

"Sovereignty in Cyberspace: Lex Lata Vel Non?", AJIL Unbound, 111: 213-218.

Schmitt, M.N. & Vihul, L.

2017

"Respect for Sovereignty in Cyberspace", Texas Law Review, 95: 1639-1670.

Schmitt, M.N.

2017

"Grey Zones in the International Law of Cyberspace", The Yale Journal of International Law Online, 42 (2): 1-21.

Davis, II, J.S., Boudreaux, B., Welburn, J.W., Aguirre, J., Ogletree, C., McGovern, G., & Chase, M.S.

2017

Stateless Attribution: Toward International Accountability in Cyberspace. Research Reports. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.

Bellovin, S.M., Landau, S. & Lin, H.S.

2017

Austin, G.

2016

"International Legal Norms in Cyberspace: Evolution of China’s National Security Motivations", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 171-201.

Boyko, S.

2016

"UN Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security", International Affairs: A Russian Journal of World Politics, Diplomacy, and International Relations, 62 (5).

Broeders, D.

2016

Centre for International Governance Innovation & Royal Institute of International Affairs

2016

A Universal Internet in a Bordered World: Research on Fragmentation, Openness and Interoperability (Research Volume One), Global Commission on Internet Governance, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

Chantzos, I. & Alam, S.

2016

"Technological Integrity and the Role of Industry in Emerging Cyber Norms", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 203-220.

Charney, S., English, E., Kleiner, A., Malisevic, N., McKay, A., Neutze, J., & Nicholas, P.

2016

Erskine, T. & Carr, M.

2016

"Beyond ‘Quasi-Norms’: The Challenges and Potential of Engaging with Norms in Cyberspace", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 87-109.

Finnemore, M. & Hollis, D.

2016

"Constructing Norms for Global Cybersecurity", American Journal of International Law, 110 (3): 425-479.

Geier, K.

2016

"Norms, Confidence and Capacity Building: Putting the UN Recommendations on Information and Communication Technologies in the Context of International Security Into OSCE-Action", European Cybersecurity Journal, 2 (1).

Kaljurand, M.

2016

"United Nations Group of Governmental Experts: The Estonian Perspective", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 111-127.

Kerttunen, M.

2016

"Patterns of Behavior: States In, Through, and About Cyberspace", Cyber Policy Institute.

Korzak, E.

2016

"The Quest for Cyber Norms", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 72 (5): 348-350.

Mačák, K.

2016

"Is the International Law of Cyber Security in Crisis?", in Pissanidis, N., Rõigas, H. & Veenendaal, M. (eds.), 2016 8th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Cyber Power, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 127-139.

Maurer, T.

2016

"The New Norms: Global Cyber-Security Protocols Face Challenges", IHS Jane’s Intelligence Review, March: 52-53.

Pawlak, P.

2016

"Confidence-Building Measures in Cyberspace: Current Debates and Trends", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 129-153.

Raymond, M.

2016

"Applying Old Rules to New Cases: International Law in the Cyber Domain", Paper presented to the International Studies Association, Atlanta GA, 16-19 March 2016.

Singh, H.V., Abdel-Latif, A. & Tuthill, L.L.

2016

"Governance of International Trade and the Internet: Existing and Evolving Regulatory Systems", Global Commission on Internet Governance, Paper Series: No. 32 – May, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

Vishik, C., Matsubara, M. & Plonk, A.

2016

"Key Concepts in Cyber Security: Towards a Common Policy and Technology Context for Cyber Security Norms", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 221-242.

Watts, S.

2016

"Cyber Law Development and the United States Law of War Manual", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 49-63.

Tsagourias, N.

2016

"Non-State Actors, Ungoverned Spaces and International Responsibility for Cyber Acts", Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 21 (3): 455-474.

Lin, H.

2016

"Attribution of malicious cyber incidents: From soup to nuts", Journal of International Affairs, 70 (1): 75-137.

Ashton-Hart, N.

2015

"Solving the International Internet Policy Coordination Problem", Global Commission on Internet Governance, Paper Series: No. 12 – May, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

Chertoff, M. & Rosenzweig, P.

2015

"A Primer on Globally Harmonizing Internet Jurisdiction and Regulations", Global Commission on Internet Governance, Paper Series: No. 10 – March, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

Crandall, M. & Allan, C.

2015

"Small States and Big Ideas: Estonia’s Battle for Cybersecurity Norms", Contemporary Security Policy, 36 (2): 346-368.

Eichensehr, K.E.

2015

"The Cyber-Law of Nations", The Georgetown Law Journal, 103 (2): 317-380.

Farrell, H.

2015

"Promoting Norms for Cyberspace", Cyber Brief, NY: Council on Foreign Relations.

Heintschel von Heinegg, W.

2015

Hurwitz, R.

2015

A Call to Cyber Norms: Discussions at the Harvard-MIT-University of Toronto Cyber Norms Workshops, 2011 and 2012, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Mazanec, B.M.

2015

"Why International Order in Cyberspace is Not Inevitable", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 9 (2): 78-98.

Tikk-Ringas, E.

2015

"Legal Framework of Cyber Security", in Lehto, M. & Neittaanmäki, P. (eds.), Cyber Security: Analytics, Technology and Automation, Springer International Publishing.

Tikk-Ringas, E. (ed.)

2015

Evolution of the Cyber Domain: The Implications for National and Global Security - Strategic Dossier, IISS-Routledge, "Chapter 5: The 2000s".

Tropina, T. & Callanan, C.

2015

Self- and Co-regulation in Cybercrime, Cybersecurity and National Security, Springer.

Walker, P.A.

2015

"Law of the Horse to Law of the Submarine: The Future State Behavior in Cyberspace", in Maybaum, M., Osula, A.-M., & Lindström, L. (eds.), 2015 7th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Architectures in Cyberspace, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE  Publications, 93-104.

Mazanec, B.M.

2015

The Evolution of Cyber War: International Norms for Emerging-Technology Weapons. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Forsyth, J.W. & Pope, B.E.

2014

Hurwitz, R.

2014

"The Play of States: Norms and Security in Cyberspace", American Foreign Policy Interests: The Journal of the National Committee on American Foreign Policy, 36 (5): 322-331.

International Security Advisory Board (ISAB)

2014

International Telecommunications Union

2014

Krutskikh, A. & Streltsov, A.A.

2014

"International Law and the Problem of International Information Security", International Affairs: A Russian Journal of World Politics, Diplomacy, and International Relations, 60 (6), 64-76.

Lewis, J.A.

2014

"Liberty, Equality, Connectivity: Transatlantic Cybersecurity Norms", Washington D.C: Center for Strategic & International Studies.

McKay, A., Neutze, J., Nicholas, P. & Sullivan, K.

2014

Mueller, B.

2014

"The Laws of War and Cyberspace: On the Need for a Treaty Concerning Cyber Conflict", Strategic Update 14.2, London: London School of Economics and Political Science.

Nye, J.S.

2014

"The Regime Complex for Managing Global Cyber Activities. The Centre for International Governance", Global Commission on Internet Governance, Paper Series: No. 1 – May, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

Schmitt, M.N. & Vihul, L.

2014

"The Nature of International Law Cyber Norms", Tallinn Paper No. 5, Special Expanded Issue, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications.

Choucri, N.

2013

"Co-Evolution of Cyberspace and International Relations: New Challenges for the Social Sciences", Prepared for World Social Science Forum (WSSF) 2013 Montreal, Canada, Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Forsyth, J.W.

2013

Glennon, M.J.

2013

"The Dark Future of International Cybersecurity Regulation", Journal of National Security Law & Policy, 6 (2): 563-570.

Hurwitz, R.

2013

"A New Normal? The Cultivation of Global Norms as Part of a Cybersecurity Strategy", in Yannakogeorgos, P.A. & Lowther, A.B. (eds.), Conflict and Cooperation In Cyberspace, The Challenge to National Security, Taylor & Francis.

Lotrionte, C.

2013

Nye, J.S.

2013

"From Bombs to Bytes: Can Our Nuclear History Inform Our Cyber Future?", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 69 (5): 8-14.

Schmitt, M.N. (ed.)

2013

Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ziolkowski, K.

2013

Brown, G. & Poellet, K.

2012

"The Customary International Law of Cyberspace", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 6 (3): 126-145.

Butler, R.J. & Lachow, I.

2012

"Multilateral Approaches for Improving Global Security in Cyberspace", Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 5-14.

Clarke, R.A.

2012

Grauman, B.

2012

Healey, J. & Pitts, H.

2012

"Applying International Environmental Legal Norms to Cyber Statecraft", I/S: A Journal of Law and Policy for the Information Society, 8 (2): 356- 387.

Hurwitz, R.

2012

"Depleted Trust in the Cyber Commons", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 6 (3): 20-45.

Kavanagh, C.

2012

"Cyber Dialogue 2012 Briefs: Whither “Rules of the Road” for Cyberspace?", CyberDialogue 2012: What is Stewardship in Cyberspace.

Kramer, F.D.

2012

Achieving International Cyber Stability, Washington D.C.: The Atlantic Council.

Orji, U.J.

2012

Cybersecurity: Law and Regulation, Wolf Legal Publishers.

Stevens, T.

2012

"A Cyberwar of Ideas? Deterrence and Norms in Cyberspace", Contemporary Security Policy, 33 (1): 148-170.

Baseley-Walker, B.

2011

"Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures in Cyberspace: Towards Norms of Behaviour", in Vignard, K., McCrae, R. & Powers, J. (eds.), Disarmament Forum: Confronting Cyberconflict, Geneva: UNIDIR, 2011 (4): 31-40.

Finnemore, M.

2011

"Cultivating International Cyber Norms", in Lord, K.M. & Sharp, T (eds.), America’s Cyber Future: Security and Prosperity in the Information Age, Washington D.C.: Center for a New American Security, 87-102.

Goldsmith, J.

2011

"Cybersecurity Treaties: A Skeptical View", in Berkowitz, P. (ed.), Future Challenges in National Security and Law, Hoover Institution Press.

Klimburg, A. & Tirmaa-Klaar, H.

2011

"Cybersecurity and Cyberpower: Concepts, Conditions and Capabilities for Cooperation for Action Within the EU", Directorate-General for External Policies of the Union, Directorate B, Policy Department, European Parliament.

Lewis, J.A.

2011

"Confidence-Building and International Agreement in Cybersecurity", in Vignard, K., McCrae, R. & Powers, J. (eds.), Disarmament Forum: Confronting Cyberconflict, Geneva: UNIDIR, 2011 (4): 51-60.

Maurer, T.

2011

"Cyber Norm Emergence at the United Nations, An Analysis of the UN‘s Activities Regarding Cyber-security", Discussion Paper 2011-11, Cambridge, Mass.: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School.

Melzer, N.

2011

"Cyberwarfare and International Law", UNIDIR Resources, Ideas for Peace and Security.

Schjølberg, S. & Ghernaouti-Hélie, S.

2011

Tikk, E.

2011

"Ten Rules for Cyber Security", Survival, 53 (3): 119-132.

Steinbruner, J.

2011

"Prospects for Global Restraints on Cyberattack", Arms Control Today, 41 (10): 21-26.

Ghernaouti-Hélie, S.

2010

Goldschmidt, C., Dark, M.J. & Chaudhry, H.

2010

"Responsibility for the Harm and Risk of Software Security Flaws", in Dark, M.J. (ed.), Information Assurance and Security Ethics in Complex Systems: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Hershey PA: IGI Global, 104-131.

Hughes, R.

2010

"A Treaty for Cyberspace", International Affairs, 86 (2): 523-541.

Kanuck, S.

2010

"Sovereign Discourse on Cyber Conflict Under International Law", Texas Law Review, 88 (7): 1571-1598.

Lewis, J.A.

2010

"Multilateral Agreements to Constrain Cyberconflict", Arms Control Today, 40 (5): 14-19.

Ryan, J.J.C.H., Ryan, D.J. & Tikk, E.

2010

"Cybersecurity Regulation: Using Analogies to Develop Frameworks for Regulation", in Tikk, E. & Talihärm, A-M. (eds.), International Cyber Security Legal & Policy Proceedings 2010, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE, 76-99.

Sofaer, A.D., Clark, D. & Diffie, W.

2010

"Cyber Security and International Agreements", Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring Cyberattacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy, National Academies Press, 179-206.

Permanent Monitoring Panel on Information Security of the World Federation of Scientists (WFS)

2010

"Erice Declaration on Principles for Cyber Stability and Cyber Peace", International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies: 42nd Session, Erice, Italy, 19-24 August, 110-111.

Wingfield, T.C. & Tikk, E.

2010

"Frameworks for International Cyber Security: The Cube, the Pyramid, and the Screen", in Tikk, E. & Talihärm, A-M. (eds.), International Cyber Security Legal & Policy Proceedings 2010, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE, 16-23.

Elliott, D.

2009

"Weighing the Case For a Convention to Limit Cyberwarfare", Arms Control Today, 39 (9): 21-27.

Hughes, R.

2009

"Towards a Global Regime for Cyber Warfare", in Czosseck, C. & Geers, K. (eds.), The Virtual Battlefield: Perspectives on Cyber Warfare, Conference proceedings - Cooperative Cyber Defense Centre of Excellence (CCD CoE) Conference on Cyber Warfare (June 2009, Tallinn, Estonia).

Schjølberg, S. & Ghernaouti-Hélie, S.

2009

Zittrain, J.L.

2008

The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Komov, S., Korotkov, S. & Dylevski, I.

2007

"Military Aspects of Ensuring International Information Security in the Context of Elaborating Universally Acknowledged Principles of International Law", in Vignard, K. (ed.), Disarmament Forum: ICTs and International Security, Geneva: UNIDIR, 2007 (3): 35-44.

Krutskikh, A.V.

2007

"[On Legal and Political Foundations of Global Information Security]" (in Russian), Mezhdunarodniye Protsessy, 1 (5), 28–37.

Murray, A.

2007

The Regulation of Cyberspace: Control in the Online Environment, New York: Routledge.

Polanski, P.P.

2007

Customary Law of the Internet. In the Search for a Supranational Cyberspace Law, The Hague: TMC Asser Press.

Streltsov, A.A.

2007

"International Information Security: Description and Legal Aspects", in Vignard, K. (ed.), Disarmament Forum: ICTs and International Security, Geneva: UNIDIR, 2007 (3): 5-14.

Lessig, L.

2006

Code, Version 2.0, Cambridge, MA: Basic Books.

Polanski, P.P.

2006

"Towards a Supranational Internet Law", Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology, 1 (1): 1-9.