Liisi Adamson

PhD Candidate

Liisi Adamson is a PhD candidate of the The Hague Program for Cyber Norms.


She has a background in international and comparative law and information technology law from University of Helsinki and University of Tartu, respectively. Prior to commencing her PhD studies Liisi served as a research fellow at the Cyber Policy Institute in Estonia (2014-2017) and as an advisor to the Estonian delegation to the UN Group of Governmental Experts on Information Security (2016-2017 session).


Her PhD research is focusing on conceptualizing resilience as a foundational norm in the context of cyberspace and responsible state behaviour. Her research asks to what extent can the foundational norm of resilience contribute to increased cybersecurity and what would this contribution consist of. Resilience on purely technical level has been conceptualized by many, however, Liisi puts forth that achieving security in cyberspace as a volatile and changing ecosystem needs to rely on resilience on multiple layers – from technical to legal. This entails looking into how law and policy can contribute to increased resilience and possibly increased cyber security. More specifically, Liisi looks into the nature and characteristics of resilience in the context of cyberspace, conceptualizes resilience as a norm and analyses to what extent can international law, specifically the due diligence principle, contribute to achieving resilience. Therefore, her research aims to create a holistic approach to resilience in cyberspace, which is supported by multiple disciplines, most notably international law, international relations and cybersecurity governance.


  • Liisi Adamson, Recommendation 13(c) Commentary, in Voluntary, Non-Binding Norms for Responsible State Behaviour in the Use of Information and Communications Technology: A Commentary (UNODA Civil Society and Disarmament, 2017-2018)
  • Liisi Adamson, ‘Sovereignty in Cyberspace: Organised Hypocrisy?’ (Master’s Thesis, University of Tartu, 2016).
  • Liisi Adamson, ‘Application of the Non-Intervention Principle to Low-Intensity Cyber Operations’ (Master’s Thesis, University of Helsinki, 2015).
  • Liisi Adamson, Kristjan Kikerpill, ‘Expectation to be Protected Against Malicious Uses of ICTs’ (paper presented at the Global Conference on CyberSpace 2015, The Hague, The Netherlands, April 16–17, 2015).


Meet the team